------- From the Archives of Eric Zorn -------  
 

I'm Valenti Slachetka. Recognized by The Steinway Society Of Chicago as a professional teacher, and have been teaching since 1962. Through the years I have had seven of my own stores and studios, and now teach out of my apartment studio with recording provisions. I have taught and also play the piano, flute, clarinet, sax as well as the guitar. I also sing.

Located in Lemont Illinois at 305 Short Street #1. For more information, visit http://www.propianoteacher..com/ or send e-mail to val@propianoteacher.com

I teach alternatively and use no course books. I record each and every lesson so it can be listened to on the way to work, working out, or whenever the student has time. Technical jargon is made understandable.... And you are shown how to play in all 12 keys. Many of the ideas that I use are John Mehegan's who taught long ago at Julliard where he was Instructor in Jazz Improvisation. I bring these teachings into today's styles by showing how to take a single note line and change it's harmonic structure into a whole new harmonic sound. For example take the c triad (c-e-g), first play the full orchestral chord and inversions...as c-e-g-c which is the tonic. Next play e-g-c-e. This is the first inversion. Play g-c-e-g the second inversion. Now here's the new harmonic development-The end of the root and it's inversions are perfect fourths. Start with the sixth of each beginning letter and you will move out of the tertial world and into the land of fourths. This is where most of us jazz musicians reign. So here it is (1) A-D-G-C, (2) C#-F#-B-E, (3) E-A-D-G. What I have done is ended with the triad; (three consecutive letters moving forward and inverted). It's so common that you seldom see the word major in music. But what you will see is the M7 could lead to the quartal (four consecutive letters and only moving forward). So then the ending one is G#-C#-F#-B. This can finally resolve with the A-D-G-C. This is meant to be spanned, (four keys between each letter), with one hand. I am currently showing many of my students these same ideas, it's like putting together a jigsaw puzzle, and only with this one you'll never run out of pieces.

THE BOOK LEARNING ALTERNATIVE.
The unfortunate thing about methodology is that you can amass books on top of books which is what you'll end up with, a pile of books. Maybe you can play; even complex pieces, but 99.9% of the time there is no understanding of the basics-scales, harmonic structure, etc. Which means you can understand, feel, transpose, and play all the scales even in double octaves.

THE ALPHABET AND MUSIC
The first 7 letters of the alphabet is the range on a Piano which is repeated up to 7 times, (with a lesser amount on other instruments). Using the piano as a reference, we see 5 black keys above 7 white. If we run our fingers over all the white keys, we would be playing in the C scale. To find "C", look at the white key to the left of the two black keys use your thumb to start and follow with 2 finger, then 3 finger and so on. When playing all white key scales, the thumb will determine the position. You can cross under the middle finger and start the "F" position, (1-4 fingers), and continue on the scale as many octaves as you can. An octave is any 7 letters higher or lower from your original start, and ending with the little finger. All white key scales use this fingering with the exception of the F scale, which use one through four twice.
All black key scales start with the index finger and continue with the next finger until a white key is played and then the thumb will be used. As soon as a black key is played again the index finger comes back into play. You will find that (C-D-E) (F-G-A-B) have a key in-between, where (E-F) & (B-C) do not. With these relationships, we can form a template or "cookie cutter" pattern that can be used in all the scales. (do-re-me-fa-so-la-te-do) or (1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8).
The things I do constantly is move in a direction that takes one into all the keys. Think about the keys as shown with a clock reference. I came up with a pyramid, showing that when you climb from the left you start at C and move to F then the flat keys spell BEAD, moving finally to Gb which is the same as F#. Descending on the right side you spell BEAD once again. Here you eliminate #'s, for on the way up we add flats. So what does this acronym spell? How about this-[ a clear flat bead glides & a flickering bead glows].
The beauty part of this approach is that a lot of my students coin their own sentences, like Elvis is not dead Elvis can be seen in the staff. The first line is E and the letters that follow move up the musical alphabet, in a continual stream from the line to a space etc. Then how about a sentence for the letters E F G A B C D E F. Elvis's first line, Fancy first space, Guitar second line, Almost second space, Broke third line, Carelessly third space, Down fourth line, Early fourth space, Friday fifth line. Elvis's fancy guitar almost broke carelessly down early Friday. Anyone who has another idea for a sentence please send Val an e-mail.
This idea came from the sentence that names all the planets moving from the sun.

HELP TO TEACHERS
I welcome all teachers who want to use any of these ideas. If they want to further information please contact me by e-mail.

MUSIC INSTRUCTION AT AN EARLY AGE
Recent research finds the following to be excellent first steps towards the following:

* Improving a preschoolers' abstract reasoning...

* An Increase in general intelligence...

* Creating changes in the brain that improves a child's ability to learn, comprehend
and retain information?even unrelated.
A new study conducted by the University of Wisconsin's' Dr. Frances
Rauscher, and Dr. Gordon Shaw of the University of California augments this existing research and shows how a 3-5 year old child will be effected...

* A better grasp on time-and-space relationships...

* Changes in brain circuitry that wouldn't happen without musical training.

* Prompts (1) self discipline, (2) patience, (3) sensitivity, (4)coordination, (5) memorization,
and (6) concentration.

* Down the road they will score at least 39 % higher in math, 51% higher
in verbal sections on scholastic aptitude testing for college entrance exams.

GUIDELINES THAT DETERMINE WHEN A VERY YOUNG CHILD
COULD START LESSONS

According to Dr. Beth Lewis from the University of Florida these questions should be answered to determine readiness for lessons.

Mental Readiness
(1) Recite the ABC's?
(2) Count to 20?
(3) Sit still and concentrate for 10 minutes?
(4) Know left from right?

Physical Readiness
(1) when sitting on a bench are forearms parallel to floor?
(2) Are Hands at least 2" wide at large knuckles?
(3) Can they use scissors?
(4) Can they color within the lines?

Emotional Readiness
(1) Do they dance or move to music when they hear it?
(2) Do they ask for lessons?
(3) Are they drawn to the piano when they hear it played?
(4) Do they air play?
(5) Do they act enthused when lessons are mentioned?

All the above result in an improvement of the physical and emotional well-being in children who take music lessons.

ENHARMONIC EQUIVALENCIES
(What?) same sound different names...OK!

Only the 5 black keys can have 2 different names (# or b) determined by the letter key before or after it, A&B C&D D&E F&G G&A. Whereas all the 7 white keys can have two more names, # or b, double sharp (looks somewhat like an x with 4 dots), and double flat (bb). These names come about from the alphabetical thread of the scales. Only 3 keys A,D,G, (the fourths again) can move up or down to the closest key and totally skip a key, again up or down, and still be called that letter name only with a new reference each time, (enharmonic equivalencies).
Finally C,E,F,B, can only move up or down to the closest key. Of course the reason for all this happening is because what the first key is in the scale, alphabetical thread, is the commonality in music.

HOW SOME INSTRUMENTS ARE DIFFERENT BUT YET THE SAME SOMEWHAT
Looking at the piano we have the edge, making the keyboard the only real tangible instrument. You can go up to a piano and play any key, looking at it's location and recalling it later without to much difficulty. Whereas stringed instruments are like multiple ironed out keyboards with each string starting at a specific letter and moving to the # or b in the next place on that string.
The thing that is unique to stringed instruments is that the same sounding note can be played on more then one string, example being an E on a guitar can be the first string open, second string fret 5, third string fret 9, fourth string fret 14, and even the fifth string fret 19, and if you have a 24 fret scale guitar, that's the final place for just that one note.
All wind instruments are a whole new game, you have to know the fingering combinations and eliminations to get that sounding note, embouchure, muscle control, and diaphragmatic support. The list goes on and on, but what a beautiful personal sound you get when all this comes into play.

THE 12 TONAL STORY
This is what all my students know, the whole picture, with all the horns and whistles...

A to A SHARP, B TO B FLAT, A TO A DOUBLE SHARP OR B, B TO B DOUBLE FLAT OR A.
B TO B SHARP OR C, C TO C FLAT OR B.
C TO C SHARP, D TO D FLAT, C TO C DOUBLE SHARP OR D, D TO D DOUBLE FLAT OR C.
D TO D SHARP, E TO E FLAT, D TO D DOUBLE SHARP OR E, E TO E DOUBLE FLAT OR D.
E TO E SHARP OR F, F TO F FLAT OR E.
F TO F SHARP, G TO G FLAT, F TO F DOUBLE SHARP OR G, G TO G DOUBLE FLAT OR F.
G TO G SHARP, A TO A FLAT, G TO G DOUBLE SHARP OR A, A TO A DOUBLE FLAT OR G.

HOW IT ALL COMES TOGETHER
We know all scales follow in an alphabetical order. When we examine the relationship each key has to one another, we can form a template or cookie cutter, if you will, that can be used with all scales. Because the C scale uses only the white keys we can examine the distancing that all the keys (C D E F G A B C) have to one another and discover that if there's a key between (in this case a black key but not always) it's called a Major second (M2) interval, with no key between it will be a Minor second (m2).
The result is C-D = M2, D-E = M2, E-F = m2,/ F-G = M2, G-A = M2, A-B = M2, B-C = m2. Generalization can also come into the picture in two ways; use do, re, me, fa, so, la, te, do or numbers, (much better for forming a template for a melody), 2 3 4 5 6 7 and 8 the octave. When we are specific, the do re me or 1 2 3 become notes with letters representing them. It can be stated finally that all Major diatonic scales (starting with 1 or do) are made up of 2 1/2 & 3 1/2 steps.

TYPES OF SCALES
Besides the Diatonic Major scales there are three Minor scale forms: Natural, Harmonic & Melodic.
Remember all scales follow in an alphabetical order no matter how complex, they may get and the Diatonic Major is now the springboard for all Minor scale forms.

Their are three Minor scale forms, the first one, Natural Minor scale, starts on the sixth tone of the Diatonic Major. Using the (C) scale as the base move to (A) the sixth, and then the Sub-Mediant in the scale is now the root of the Natural Minor scale, using no flats or sharps. With closer examination we find that (A) is also an interval of a minor third down from the tonic and the octave of the scale.

The following is the Minor reference to Major in all 12 keys:
Am is C, Bbm is Db, Bm is D, Cm is Eb, C#m is E, Dm is F, Ebm is Gb, Em is G, Fm is Ab, F#m is A, Gm is Bb, Abm is Cb or B the common spelling.

The second one, Harmonic Minor, replaces the seventh with the seventh from the Major scale, the example being that in the A minor scale the seventh tone is G, but in the A major scale the seventh tone is G# giving us (A B C D E F G# A) with all components of the scale relating to the C scale, the exception being the G#, it comes from the A major scale.

The third one, Melodic Minor, is unique in that when moving forward the sixth (F) and the seventh (G) are replaced with F# and G# from the major scale but when moving back the whole scale takes the form of the Natural Minor, ( A B C D E F# G# A ) ascending and ( A G F E D C B A ) descending.

Remember all minor scales are displaced major scales and in some case a partial major of a minor.

HARMONY IN THE TERTIAL WORLD
Seeing that we only use the first seven letters in the musical use of the alphabet, all that has to be known to construct basic chords is how to skip a letter or number. If we generalize as l-3 or A-C, B-D, C-E, D-F, E-G, F-A, G-B, this would be using two letters which are considered to be diads. Add another diad, if this is a triad as l-3-5 or A-C-E, B-D-F C-E-G, D-F-A, E-G-B, F-A-C G-B-D can add and invert for full chords. Add another triad or 3 diads and we move into the world of sevenths. Used in the modes the foundation to further harmony, as a 7th, we're looking at quartals l-3-5-7 or A-C-E-G, B-D-F- A, C-E-G-B, D-F-A-C, E-G-B-D, F-A-C-E (the four spaces of the staff) G-B-D-F, A-C-E-G.

Next we go past the first octave and move what was 2 to a 9 which is now made up of 4 diads or 3 triads or the pentad l-3-5-7-9 or A-C-E-G-B, B-D-F-A-C, C-E-G-B-D, D-F-A-C-E, E-G-B-D-F ( the last 5 lines of the staff) F-A-C-E-G, G-B-D-F-A.

Now comes the 11th. 5 diads or 4 triads the sextad or l-3-5-7-9-11 or A-C-E-G-B-D, B-D-F-A-C-E, C-E-G-B-D-F, D-F-A-C-E-G, E-G-B-D-F-A, F-A-C-E-G-B, G-B-D-F-A-C.

And finally the l3th--6 diads, or 5 triads the septad or l-3-5-7-9-11-13 or A-C-E-G-B-D-F, B-D-F-A-C-E-G, C-E-G-B-D-F-A, D-F-A-C-E-G-B, E-G-B-D-F-A-C, F-A-C-E-G-B-D, G-B-D-F-A-C-E.

Now all that has to be known are the rules to formulate the chords. No matter how complex they are, they are all in the tertial world.

THE CHORD RULES "WITHOUT GETTING TOO FAR OUT"
Why not just single note melody? Because if we played like that all the time, not only would this get boring, but the melodic line would never be enhanced. The bottom needs chords in order for it to thrive in the bass lines being put down, besides winds play one tone at a time. When a pro plays, chords are not only in the left hand, but in the right hand as well.

In the left hand, chords can be rhythmic or arpeggiated. Moving in and out of a bass line dissonant, as in tonal clusters, the list goes on. Whereas chords in the right hand should enhance the melodic line, with arpeggios used to fill in the empty spaces.

The chords that everyone should know are the ones using 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 keys and even more at one time! Not enough fingers to do some of these? Remember the left hand can and will be the underlying factor in the construction of a 9th, llth and the l3th chord.

The construction of chords from the basic major to the altered and re-altered monster chords are all based on formulas that relate to the basic scale form. Only this time, we usually skip around to various scales. Take, for example, C on its own. It's all right as C or major (M7) but it also fits the G scale, but not so as a minor. For now, it's in the Eb scale. And even more so when it's looked at as a m7 (-). For now, it's being found in the Bb, the Eb, and the Ab although when it's used as the dominant it's only in the scale of F.

If we review C's displacement, we find C M7 is one in C tonic, and four in F subdominant. Cm7 (-) is two in Bb, 3 in Ab, and 6 in Eb or its relative minor. C7 is 5 in F or dominant.

If we look at these chords to be modal, then we need one more form, and that is the m7b5, 3 keys altered , b3 b5, b7, then become Cm7b5 the seventh in the Db key.

This means that if C can be a part of 7 scales or keys, all the ones remaining can use this same scenario, giving us 84 basic chords in all l2 keys.

The simple way to construct chords is not to be looking at them all laid out for us in a book, but do some detective work, analyze, take apart, and you'll find root chord forms all skip a letter, line or space, or even Do-Me-So-Te, Me-Fa-La-Do, Me-So-Te-Re, etc. The easiest way to see it is, "think in skipped numbers." l-3-5-7, etc.

Now if we take a look at the intervallic relationships, we find that we're looking at two kinds of 3rd's. If looking at a piano the keys which we skip to form chords, we find that between these keys C & E, there are 3 keys skipped, which gives us the M3 (M) interval. Whereas there are only 2 keys skipped for a m3 (m), giving us chord forms that are the following combinations of intervals M=Mm, m =mM, M7=MmM, m7=mMm,7=Mmm, m7b5=Mmm .

THE HOW, WHICH AND THE WHY OF CHORD PROGRESSIONS
Listening to the many sounds that surround us, whether they're coming from traffic, industry, people, birds, or animals, one thing that's certain is that they're all different. They go UP and DOWN, and move all around the spectrum.

The same is with a musical sound. When used in a song, the musical movement is well organized, usually following a set form or progression.

Wynton Marsalis touched on this in his four-part video "Marsalis on Music," which was shown on Public Television, comparing movement in a progression to a place where one might work. I use all the chromatic tones that are outside of the progression, which I have named the big band chromatic connection. The comparison I have been using is the work place. For years I tried different comparisons but this is the one that works the best.

You enter your building at the first floor--this is called the tonic. The minute you put your first foot in the door, the progression starts. In music this duration is getting the movement started. The time spent is broken into segments called measures. In music this is separated by breaks or lines called bar lines. Some compositions use no bar lines anywhere or even a key identification called a key signature which would negate the progression idea altogether.

So here we are: we came in (THE FIRST MEASURE), spent some time, maybe to the newspapers area, used more time, (THE SECOND MEASURE), or bar (musical short cut). Finally before we're considered late, we stop and get a pack of gum, (THIRD MEASURE). Oh, I almost forgot (Bar!)--"Sorry!"

Now to the floor we work on. In this case there is no contrivance that is working now to get us there, so we have to use the stairs. Seeing our progression, the floor that we work on is the 4th floor, we climb these few stairs, (FOURTH MEASURE), each stair is a part of the chromatic movement coming from the first floor or prime #1 and moving to the second stair the minor second, and then the third stair the major second, also the super tonic--then the fourth stair, the minor third, then the fifth and final stair, the major third--or mediant. The sixth opens our office door and it is the perfect fourth, the fourth floor and subdominant, the time we spend here is not quite TWO MEASURES sometimes.

Now it's lunchtime. We take the fast way and we're back on the first floor sitting at our table having our soup. This is only ONE MEASURE today, the boss is beeping and wants to see you right away. So the time we were still allowed was cut short, the SECOND MEASURE--and wouldn't you know it, you've got to use the stairs once again and seeing that his office is only one floor above yours, the perfect fifth and dominant in the progression, as well as the scale, you climb the same amount of stairs that you did before only after the sixth. You do a seventh stair or diminished fifth and finally you've arrived, the eighth place or dominant (being redundant here , ONE MEASURE expecting the worst, you find out the boss is praising you on how well you're doing. He shakes your hand. You close the door and again you're being beeped but this time it's a family emergency. So you hurriedly go back down the stairs, chromatic movement. Get to your office, look for your keys which you dropped on the floor when you were sitting at your desk, hardly ONE MEASURE, find them, fly down the stairs, somewhat with the same rhythmic values as in "The Phantom of the Opera," the final part of the chromatic movement. Once again, the tonic, which can be as long as TWO MEASURES, or move to other changes as in substitutions, modulate to another key.

THE BLUES
If you ever listened to the sound of the early piano players who were known for their ability to play the blues, you may have asked yourself the question, How did they do that? Will I ever be able to do it?" Well, maybe the answer is, if you learn your progressions, especially in the l2 bar format, and learn how to limit the scale to either a pentatonic (5 places) or better yet a hexatonic (6 places), you'll be on your way. Probably the one thing to look at, first, is the sound associated with< the blues, coming from black keys smashing against the white keys, which will then limit the piano player to a select number of keys like C, F, G. The important thing to remember is that the 5 black keys are the ones that you can use as an embellishment, or a crushed tone, to a white key unlike the string player who can hammer on or slide to a target tone anywhere, seeing that all the tones are on a level plain. The next thing to know is the left hand is playing a rhythmic pulse based on the tonic as a 7th and the right hand is somewhat in a minor 7th b5th with a minor 2nd before and after the b5. This simply means we use the perfect 4th as well as the perfect 5th, or (l b3 4 #4 or the b5th b7). The movement or runs that work the best are the following:

C = C Eb F (F# or Gb) G (Bb) G = G Bb C (C# or Db) D (F)

These two use the same shape or arrangement of keys as the first 5 keys with the sixth key changing from a black to a white key.

The following are not that friendly but can be worked out:

D = D F G (G# Ab) A (C)
E = E G A (A# Bb) B (D)
F = F AbBb (B or Cb) C (Eb)
A = A C D (D# or Eb) E (G)
B = B D E (F) F# (A)

The 5 black keys are the most challenging:

C# = C# E F# (G) G# (B)
Eb = Eb Gb Ab (A) Bb (Db)
F# = F# A B (C) C# (E)
Ab = Ab B C# (D) D# (F#)
Bb = Bb Db Eb (E) F (Ab)

All of these can be worked out with patterns that work.

Another important aspect to look at is that each movement in the progression can be in a mixolydian mode or the 5th of its 4th (WHAT!?). C = F or C is the 5th in the F scale giving us the (Bb) for the dominant--OK! Here's the chart:

C# = F#; D = G; Eb = Ab; E = A; F = Bb; F# = B; G = C; Ab = Db; A = D; Bb = Eb; B = E

This can be developed into a pattern. Whenever there are black keys above the white keys, crush them in; play them in a progression.

C = C (EG) C (FA) C (GBb) C (FA) C
F = F (AC) F (BbD) F (CEb) F (BbD) F
G = G (BD) G (CE) G (DF) G (CE) G

F = Same as before
Bb = Bb (DF) Bb (EbG) Bb (FAb) Bb (EbG) Bb
C = Same as before

Bb = Same as before
Eb = Eb (GBb) Eb (AbC) Eb (BbDb) Eb (AbC)(Eb
F = Same as before

Eb = Same as before
Ab = Ab (CEb) Ab (DbF) Ab (EbGb) Ab (DbF)Ab
Bb = Same as before

Ab = Same as before
Db = Db (FAb) Db (GbBb) Db (AbCb) Db (GbBb) Db
Eb = Same as before

Db = As before
Gb = Gb (BbDb) Gb (CbEb) Gb (DbFb) Gb (CbEb) Gb
Ab = As before

F# - as before, was Gb
B = B (D#F#) B (EG#) B (F#A) B (EG#) B
C# = As before, was Db

B = Same as before
E = E (G#B) E (AC#) E (BD) E (AC#) E
F# = Same as before

E = As before
A = A (C#E) A (DF#) A (EG) A (DF#) A
B = As before

A = As before
D = D (F#A) D (GB) D (AC) D (GB) D
E = As before

D = As before
G = G (BD) G (CE) G (DF) G (CE) G
A = As before

G = As before
C = As before
D = As before

The progression to use on all these is I or l or the tonic = 4 bars IV or 4 or the subdominant = 2 bars Return to I for 2 more bars, and then to V or 5 or dominant for l bar, to IV for l bar and finally to I for 2 bars, which is subject to change.

Along with the blues run and this movement, you'll be well on your way to jamming or just playing for your own amuzement.

HOW TO PLAY ALL SEVEN TONES OF THE SCALE IN A HARMONIC DIRECTION
If you read instructional books on how to develop chord progressions mainly with ballad and jazz usage in mind, most of the text out there would hardly open the door to the fascinating way that these can be structured utilizing the whole scale even with the use of some interesting substitutions.

Most would say learn the II V I. The unfortunate thing is that they don't show you where to go after that. If we analyze this movement, we will find the distancing entailed between the II and the IV as well as the next one, (the I), all have the same amount of numbers in between which are two numbers giving us the movement of fourths.

Furthering this idea, it can be said that if II moves to V and then V moves to I, I will then move to IV and IV will move to VII with VII moving to III and, finally, ending with VII moving to III. Seeing that the numbers are a generic substitution for the places in the scale, they also represent the chords from the various modes, the major seventh and the minor seventh. The seventh and the minor seventh b5th.

Where the substitutions can come into use is the changing of the III to a 7th instead of the minor 7th that's in the mode. One more change can take place, this is the use of what's called the tri-tone substitution, which is taking the V out altogether and replacing it with a bII7.

These changes should be taught in all l2 keys, and with both hands. The way to make this transition of these chords, change as smooth as possible, and bring in the use of inversions. This will give us a close-knit sound without any interruptions whatsoever. Play the II bII of the I in their root form. But when moving to the IV, move the last 2 keys down. Don't touch the first 2 keys. Only the third moves a minor second and the fourth a major second.

When moving to the VII, don't touch the last two keys but move the first a minor 2nd down and the second a major second. When moving to III as a 7th, don't touch the first 2 keys. Move the third key down a minor second and the fourth key as well.

The last change ends on VI with a three-key movement. The only one that doesn't change is the third key. The first and second move down a major second, and the fourth moves a minor second, ending in the root form.

The way to play this in all l2 keys or modulate, is to start thinking in fourths. The easiest way to do this is to look at the VI, which just ended the progression and move it into the fourth's scale. This now puts it in the third place of the new key to make the transition work. Move everything down a major second, starting the whole process once again and again until the progression is played in all the l2 keys.

Instead of thinking that music is only black dots, start looking at it in spatial relationships.

WAYS TO PLAY IN ALL l2 KEYS
Besides the movement in fourths (C, F, Bb, Eb, Ab, Db, Gb, B, E, A, D, G), the movement can be in flat sevenths using six moves twice (C, Bb, Ab, Gb, E, D), followed by (B, A, G, F, Eb, Db). These movements can be used with one chord form blues idea or progression, the nicest of which is the major seventh.

STRICTLY MODES
Each scale, (and there are l2 in the l2 tonal system), has 7 alphabetical letters moving from one to the other. Therefore, besides the tonic (l) taking prominence, the other 6 tones can also function as a scale. But these adhere to the key signature of the tonic. One way to do these modal scales, is to (if you're playing on a piano) hold the modal chords in your left hand and run the scale in your right hand, in either one octave or two in the following manner: While holding the I, the M7 in the left hand, the right hand will move from (l) in a vertical direction until reaching the 8th if you're doing one octave, or the l5th if you're doing two. Next, move the left hand to the second, the minor 7th and move from the 9th or the l6th back down the scale to the 3rd. Next move the left hand to the third, the minor 7th with the right hand moving in the same manner as before only this time 3 will move to l0 or l7. Next, move the left hand to the 4th the major 7th, with the right moving from the ll or l8 down. Next, move the left hand to the 5th the seventh, moving 5 to l2 or l9. Next, move the left hand to the 6th, the minor seventh with the right hand moving back from l3 or 20 to 6. Next, move the left hand to the 7th minor seventh flat fifth (m7b5) moving 7 to l4 or 2l. The important thing to remember is the first tone the right hand starts on will be the one that you will come back on when going down or up.

Remembering the old adage "what goes up, must come down," the same is true with this study for the left hand that will move to 8 which was the (l) before, the M7 and the right hand will move down from l5 or 22 to the 8. Next the left hand will move to the 7, the m7b5 and the right hand will move up from 7 to l4 or 2l. Next, the left hand will move to 6 the minor 7th with the right hand moving down from l3 or 20 to 6. Next, the left hand will move to 5 the 7th with the right hand moving up from 5 to l2 or l9. Next, the left hand moves to 4 the M7 with the right hand moving down from ll or l8 to 4. Next, the left hand will move to 3 the minor 7th with the right hand moving up from 3 to l0 or l7. Next, the left hand will move to 2 the minor 7th with the right hand moving down 9 or l6 to 2. The final move is the left hand moving to the (l) the M7 and the right hand doing the 1 which ends the study. Again, this like all studies should be played in all 12 keys.

ARPEGGIATED MODES
Like in the previous study, the left hand will hold the chord while the right hand will arpeggiate (break up) the chord in 2 octaves in the following manner: While holding the I in the left hand, the right hand will move from l in this case the M7 chord in thirds as: l-3-5-7-8-l0-l2-l4. move the left hand to II and the right hand up to l5 and go down to l3-ll-9-8-6-4-2. All the chords and arpeggiations will continue in the same manner, the first one goes up and the next one goes down. Next, the left hand moves to III with the right hand doing 3-5-7-9-l0-l2-l4-l6. The left hand moves to IV with the right hand moving up to l7 and going down to l5-l3-ll-l0-8-6-4. Move the left hand to V with the right hand doing 5-7-9-ll-l2-l4-l6=-l8. Next the left hand moves to VI with the right hand moving up to l9 and going down to l7-l5-l3-l2-l0-8-6. Next the left hand moves to VII with the right hand doing 7-9-ll-l3-l4-l6-l8-20. Remembering that what goes up must come down rule, move the left hand up to I only this time the M7 is in the next octave with the right hand moving up to 2l-l9-l7-l5-l4-l2-l0-8. Next the left hand comes down to the VII with the right hand doing 7-9-ll-l3-l4-l6-l8-20. Then the left hand comes down to VI with the right hand doing l9-l7-l5-l3-l2-l0-8-6. The left hand comes down to V with the right hand doing 5-7-9-ll-l2-l4-l6-l8. The left hand moves down to IV with the right hand doing l7-l5-l3-ll-l0-8-6-4. The left hand moves down to III with the right hand doing 3-5-7-9-l0-l2-l4-l6. The left hand moves down to II with the right hand doing l5-l3-ll-9-8-6-4-2. Now we're back to I from where we started and the right hand only plays the l.

THE LABELING OF THE TONAL SYSTEM
In order to identify a product it has to have some kind of animal, vegetable or mineral tag, this is true also in music only here their called Chromaticism (all 12 tones), with scalar and modality using only seven select tones in all 15 keys of which 3 are enharmonically the same. The following is the labeling chart using the 3 categories pertaining to music.

CHROMATICISM SCALAR MODALITY

1 PRIME TONIC IONIAN

2 MINOR 2nd.

3 MAJOR 2nd. SUPER TONIC DORIAN

4 MINOR 3rd.

5 MAJOR 3rd. MEDIANT PHRGIAN

6 PERFECT 4th. SUB-DOMINANT LYDIAN

7 DIMINISH 5th.

8 PERFECT 5th. DOMINANT MIXOLYDIAN

9 MINOR 6th.

10 MAJOR 6th. SUB-MEDIANT AEOLIAN

11 MINOR 7th.

12 MAJOR 7th. LEADING TONE LOCRIAN

Knowing A GUITAR
You go out and buy a guitar, acoustic or electric it doesn't matter, the most important thing to look for is it's set up, and the action. If it's going to take a lot of effort to push those strings down, then the strings are to high off the fret board. Of course the strings shouldn't be dragging on the fret board either. A helpful thing to remember is that when you use that little tool that should come with all new guitars on the truss- rod is right tightey, left loosely.
If you take your guitar to a repair shop, this is just one of the possibilities of things that could be done. Either they will tighten or loosen the neck, which will give you a better chance and make it more comfortable in your playing effort.

Fingering Power
We are not accustomed to using our fingers individually until we start playing a stringed instrument. Either we're grasping or holding on to something.
One great exercise that coordinates your fingers to the fret board involves starting with the first open string, you can use fingers or a pick, even the nail of your first finger. Bring the first finger onto the first fret, close to the metal bar separating the fret board into frets. Now keeping it there move to the second, if your doing this right so far you should have 2 fingers in place. The next two that will try you, will be holding down the third while adding the fourth, which is the little finger. Now the whole procedure starts at the fifth fret and ends with the eighth. Finally move to the ninth and end with the twelfth. Reverse the procedure on the second string, you could lock your fingers in position and just eliminate them one at a time, but this is not needed, just keeping them in place will work.
What this amounts to is an exercise that moves your fingers up and down in three positions. In the first string 0 to 12, in the second 12 to 0, in the third 0 to 12, in the fourth 12 to 0, in the fifth 0 to 12, in the sixth 12 to 0. Reverse the whole process, up to 12 in the sixth, 12 to 0 in the fifth, 0 to 12 in the fourth, 12 to 0 in the third, 0 to 12 in the second and 12 to 0 in the first. Do this every-day and then start calling out their names and maybe their notational place.

Important Facts About Playing Winds
If you have to blow across it, or it uses a mouthpiece, it is a wind instrument The most important thing to consider is how you get the air in the instrument and how to make all those beautiful sounds come out. For over all projection with an even column of air, we must use our entire breathing apparatus, (the lungs and the diaphragm), correctly. The whole idea is to inhale, fill the stomach with air, like blowing up a balloon and deflating it, and doing the same thing only bringing your stomach in when blowing out. Simply stated, breath in expand, breath out contract.

THE BEST APPROACH FOR WINDS
To get the basics, you can use any beginning book. The one place that gives you all the answers in your formative stage is the fingering chart, which can be found in the first few pages, in the back, and maybe even a fold out. Today you can do a search and find all this material on the web. When you use the fingering chart you learn all the combinations of fingering to produce any normal range tone. All fingering charts start out with the lowest and end with the highest tone in the normal range. The exception is that some instruments like the trumpet can produce sounds below(pedal tone), and above (altissimo), the norm. The sax, clarinet, and the flute and all instruments in the same genre can only go into the altissimo register, 4 lines above the staff and beyond (the skies the limit). The fingerings for these notes can only be found in special books, and again with a search on the web you can get any fingering chart, at no cost.

DEVELOPING TOTAL CONTROL
Before playing, look at the lowest note on your fingering chart, only fingering and holding the instrument, (correctly) say the name of the note out loud. By doing this your brain will now have this knowledge stored in your data bank. Go to the very next note and do the same thing with it, maybe six times or so a day, saying them and describing their position with the staff in mind. Soon you should forgo the saying each day and start playing. Hold each note as long as you can. While the air is flowing sneak in the next tone, again for as long as possible. Repeat the second tone and go to the third. Do this in the same manner with the rest of the notes on the fingering chart. Reverse the procedure on the way down. What you should do is exhale (contract) on 2 notes each time. At first you can inhale (expand) for four counts. When you get more control try 4 notes (16 count exhale), and then a four cont inhale. Make this part of your daily practice routine and you'll be playing the whole instrument and pieces will become second nature.

THE MOTHER STRING (Guitar)
The strings on the guitar can be compared to a very weird string plant. Taking the sixth string, (which we'll now refer to as the mother string), and take a slip from it, as well as all the following strings. Each time we do this the next string will get thinner. We are now equipped with our imaginary blade that is starting to slip away. The first slip is taken from the 6th.(E)string. We carefully do our deed at the 5th.fret (A) and now to the next thinner string, the 5th.string. We make our slip once again at the 5th fret (D), now the 4th string. Once again the slip is taken from the 5th fret (G), now the 3rd string. The strings are really starting to get thinner now so we carefully take our slip from the 4th.fret (B), now the 2nd string. The (B) string is now strong enough to take the final slip once more from the 5th.fret (E). From all our imaginary string plants the 1st. string (E) is the thinnest.

FOR SAX PLAYERS
Remember this when practicing or performing. Try to stand, don't sit. If you stand you won't be twisting, bending, looking down and limiting the air to your windpipe.

Alto and Tenor players always keep your horn in front of you when blowing. If you play on the side, your right hand action will be slower and your horn will pull to that side. You'll also be in a world of hurt, especially your right hand thumb, and your neck.

When you first start to blow for practice session or performing, don't play loud. Just play soft for the first 5 minutes until your mouth and embouchure are warmed up

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Valentine Slachetka

© Copyright by Valenti Slachetka 2004. All rights reserved.